On this article, we’ll discover URL routing in Flask, discussing its significance in internet growth and offering insights into the way it works.

We’ll delve into varied elements, similar to defining routes, dealing with dynamic URL patterns, supporting totally different HTTP strategies, managing redirects and errors, and following greatest practices for efficient URL routing in Flask.

Desk of Contents
  1. Flask and URL Routing
  2. Basic Routing in Flask
  3. Variable Rules
  4. URL Building
  5. HTTP Methods
  6. Redirects and Errors
  7. Best Practices for URL Routing in Flask
  8. Conclusion

Flask and URL Routing

Flask is a well-liked internet framework for Python that permits internet builders to construct internet functions simply and effectively.

That is a sophisticated article on Flask, so that you’ll have to have a fundamental understanding of how Flask works. You’ll be able to rise up to hurry by taking a look at our introduction to Flask. You too can rise up to hurry by wanting over the Flask documentation.

One key options of Flask is its highly effective URL routing system.

URL routing is a basic idea in internet growth that entails mapping (binding) URLs to particular functionalities or sources inside an internet software. It’s a approach of figuring out how incoming requests are dealt with, and by which view capabilities. Routing is about accepting requests and directing them to the suitable view capabilities that can deal with them and generate the specified response.

Primary Routing in Flask

Routing in Flask determines how incoming requests are dealt with based mostly on the URL a person has requested. Flask makes use of the route() decorator methodology of the Flask software occasion to outline routes after which bind them to applicable view capabilities.

To show fundamental routing in Flask, we begin by importing the Flask class from the flask module:

As soon as now we have the Flask class, we are able to create the applying occasion and retailer it in a variable referred to as app. The Flask class takes in a __name__ argument, which is a particular Python variable denoting the identify of the present module containing the Flask software occasion:

Utilizing the applying occasion, now we have entry to its varied strategies and interior designers, which we are able to use to outline routes, deal with requests, and carry out different duties in our internet software. Nevertheless, for this instance, we’ll have an interest within the route() decorator, a particular methodology which, when utilized to a perform in Flask, turns it right into a view perform that can deal with internet requests. It takes in a compulsory URL sample and optionally available HTTP strategies as its arguments. The route() decorator allows us to affiliate a URL sample with the embellished perform, basically saying that if a person visits the URL outlined within the decorator, the perform can be triggered to deal with this request:

def index():
 return "This can be a fundamental flask software"

Within the code snippet above, now we have the route(/) decorator utilized to the index() perform, which means that the perform will deal with requests to the foundation URL ’/’. So when a person accesses the URL, Flask will set off the index() perform that can return the string “This can be a fundamental Flask software”, and it will likely be displayed within the browser.

To make sure the applying runs when this module is invoked with Python within the command line, add the if __name__ verify:

if __name__ == '__main__':

Placing all of the above code snippets into one file provides us the next Flask software:

from flask import Flask

app = Flask(__name__)

def index():
 return "This can be a fundamental flask software"

if __name__ == '__main__':

By utilizing the route() decorator, we are able to outline routes for various URLs and map them to the suitable view capabilities that can generate the specified response. This permits us to create a structured and arranged internet software with distinct functionalities for various routes.

Variable Guidelines

Within the instance above, we created a easy URL. Flask allows us to create dynamic URLs that may reply to numerous eventualities, person enter and particular necessities. By passing variables in URL patterns, builders can design routes that adapt dynamically and ship personalised, participating experiences to customers.

When defining routes in Flask, we are able to embody variable placeholders marked by <variable_name> within the URL sample. By default, these variables maintain string values. Nevertheless, if we have to cross different forms of information, Flask gives converters that allow us to specify the kind of information to be captured, like this: <converter:variable_name>.

Beneath is an instance diagram exhibiting varied variable URLs. The URLs change relying on the worth a person provides. For instance, we might fetch a unique product each time by giving a unique ID, or we might present a unique writer profile by altering the username on the URL.

An image showing URLs that take in variables

Say now we have a running a blog software and we wish to create a URL for a view that exhibits the profile of an writer. We might cross the username of the writer like so:

def show_author(username):
 return f"Return the writer profile of {username}"

On this instance, the URL sample is '/authors/<username>', the place <username> is the variable that can be changed with the precise username of the writer. Will probably be handed to the show_author() perform as a parameter. Utilizing this worth, we are able to carry out additional actions, similar to retrieving the writer information from the database and producing a response based mostly on the data we get from the database.

We are able to additionally cross multiple variable in a URL:

def show_post(post_id, slug):
 return f"Submit {post_id} - Slug: {slug}"

On this instance, now we have a URL sample that has multiple variable rule. It additionally incorporates a converter for the post_id within the type of <int:post_id>, indicating that an integer is anticipated to the variable. We even have <slug>, which can seize a slug string for this variable.

So when a request is made to this URL, Flask will seize the values specified within the URL and cross them as arguments to the show_post() perform for additional processing. For instance, if a request is made to /posts/456/flask-intro, Flask will seize post_id=456 and slug=flask-intro, and these values can be handed as arguments to the show_post() perform. Throughout the perform, we are able to carry out varied operations, similar to retrieving the corresponding submit from a database based mostly on the post_id and slug values. Within the instance code, we merely return a string response that features the captured values:

return f"Submit {post_id} - Slug: {slug}"

This instance exhibits how we are able to use variable guidelines and converters in Flask to create dynamic URLs that seize various kinds of information — such integers and strings — and course of them inside view capabilities. This permits us to construct apps that reply to particular person enter and ship customized content material.

URL Constructing

As soon as we outline our URL patterns and map them to view capabilities, we are able to use them anyplace else in our code or within the templates, as a substitute of exhausting coding the URLs Flask gives the url_for() perform. The perform will mechanically construct a URL relying on the arguments we offer to it. It takes the identify view perform as the primary required argument and any variety of optionally available key phrase arguments, every akin to a variable a part of the URL rule.

Constructing URLs utilizing the url_for() perform has a number of advantages. It’s extra descriptive in our code if now we have one thing like url_for(‘login’) as a substitute of /login. We’ll additionally be capable to change our URLs in a single go as a substitute of needing to recollect to manually change all hard-coded URLs. This perform additionally handles escaping of particular characters transparently and mechanically. The generated URLs can be absolute paths, eradicating the issue of relative paths in browsers; irrespective of the construction of our software, the url_for() perform will deal with that for us correctly.

Let’s use the url_for() perform to generate URLs for the view capabilities we’ve already seen above:

from flask import Flask, url_for

app = Flask(__name__)

def index():
 return "This can be a fundamental flask software"

def show_author(username):
  return f"Return the writer profile of {username}"

def show_post(post_id):
 return f"Exhibiting submit with ID: {post_id}"

if __name__ == '__main__':
 with app.test_request_context():
   home_url = url_for('index')
   profile_url = url_for('show_author', username='antony')
   post_url = url_for('show_post', post_id=456, slug='flask-intro' )

   print("Generated URLs:")
   print("House URL:", home_url)
   print("Writer profile URL:", profile_url)
   print("Submit URL:", post_url)

This instance demonstrates the utilization of the url_for() perform to generate URLs. With the intention to use the perform, we import it from the flask module. It defines three routes: '/', '/authors/<username>', and '/submit/<int:post_id>/<slug>'.

Throughout the if __name__ == '__main__': block, a check request context is created utilizing app.test_request_context() to permit entry to the url_for() perform. It tells Flask to behave as if it’s dealing with a request even whereas we use the shell.

We then retailer the generated URLs in variables (home_url, profile_url, and post_url) after which print them, giving an output just like the one proven beneath:

Generated URLs:
House URL: /
Writer profile URL: /authors/antony
Submit URL: /submit/456/flask-intro

We are able to additionally use the url_for() in templates. Let’s replace the Flask software to render templates and see how we are able to transfer from one template to the opposite, by producing URLs utilizing the url_for() perform:

from flask import Flask, render_template

app = Flask(__name__)

def index():
   return render_template("index.html")

def show_author(username):
   return render_template('profile.html', username=username)

if __name__ == '__main__':

Create a templates listing within the root of the undertaking and create the next two information.


<!DOCTYPE html>
 <title>House Web page</title>
 <h1>Welcome to the house web page!</h1>
 <a href="{{ url_for('show_author', username='Antony') }}">Go to Antony's profile</a>


<!DOCTYPE html>
 <title>Person Profile</title>
 <h1>Welcome, {{ username }}!</h1>
 <a href="{{ url_for('index') }}">Return to residence web page</a>

Within the index.html template, we use the url_for() perform to generate the URL for the 'profile' endpoint and cross the username argument as 'Antony'. This generates a hyperlink to Antony’s profile web page. Equally, within the profile.html template, we generate a hyperlink to the house web page utilizing url_for('index').

When the templates are rendered, Flask will substitute {{ url_for(...) }} with the corresponding generated URLs. This permits for dynamic URL technology throughout the templates, making it simple to create hyperlinks to different routes or cross arguments to these routes.

Utilizing url_for() in templates helps be sure that the generated URLs are appropriate and maintainable, even when the routes change sooner or later. It gives a handy method to create dynamic hyperlinks that adapt to the present state of our Flask software.

Total, we are able to see that, through the use of the url_for() perform, we are able to dynamically generate URLs in Flask based mostly on the route endpoints (the identify of the view perform) and different optionally available arguments. This gives a versatile and dependable method to create URLs that adapt to the precise functionalities of our internet app.

HTTP Strategies

Net functions use totally different HTTP strategies when accessing URLs, and functions constructed utilizing the Flask framework aren’t any exception. Flask helps varied HTTP strategies similar to GET, POST, PUT, DELETE and extra. These strategies outline the actions we are able to perform on the sources which can be out there when accessing the varied URLs we’ve outlined in our software. Utilizing the totally different HTTP strategies, we are able to deal with various kinds of requests and carry out associated operations in our Flask software.

In Flask, we are able to outline the HTTP strategies {that a} route can settle for utilizing the strategies parameter of the route decorator. Once we specify the strategies a route accepts, Flask ensures that the route is just accessible for these specified strategies.

Right here’s an instance:

from flask import Flask, request

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/', strategies=['GET'])
def index():
 return "That is the house web page"

@app.route('/authors', strategies=['GET', 'POST'])
def authors():
 if request.methodology == 'GET':
    return "Get all authors"
 elif request.methodology == 'POST':
    return "Create a brand new writer"

@app.route('/authors/<int:author_id>', strategies=['GET', 'PUT', 'DELETE'])
def writer(author_id):
 if request.methodology == 'GET':
    return f"Get writer with ID: {author_id}"
 elif request.methodology == 'PUT':
    return f"Replace writer with ID: {author_id}"
 elif request.methodology == 'DELETE':
    return f"Delete person with ID: {author_id}"

if __name__ == '__main__':

This up to date code demonstrates the utilization of HTTP strategies in Flask. It defines three routes: '/','/authors', and '/authors/<int:author_id>'. Every route has particular HTTP strategies related to it.

The '/‘ route solely permits GET requests, and the index() perform handles GET requests to this route. It returns the string That is the house web page when accessed by way of a GET request. We are able to omit the GET methodology parameter, since GET is the default for all strategies until explicitly acknowledged.

The '/authors' route permits each GET and POST requests, and the authors() perform handles these requests. If the request methodology is GET, it returns the string Get all authors. If the request methodology is POST, it performs the required actions to create a brand new writer and returns the string Create a brand new writer.

The '/authors/<int:author_id>' route permits GET, PUT, and DELETE requests, and the writer() perform handles these requests. If the request methodology is GET, it retrieves the writer with the desired ID and returns a response string. If the request methodology is PUT, it updates the writer with the desired ID and returns a response string. If the request methodology is DELETE, it deletes the writer with the desired ID and returns a response string.

By defining routes with particular HTTP strategies, we are able to create a RESTful API or internet software that handles various kinds of requests and performs the suitable operations on the related sources.

Redirects and Errors

As we undergo the idea of routing in Flask, we additionally want to grasp deal with errors. Customers will present incorrect URLs or incomplete data, and this may result in errors occurring in our software. So for our software to be full, we’ll have to deal with errors gracefully — both by offering informative messages, or by redirecting customers. Flask gives the redirect and abort capabilities.

The redirect perform is used to take the person to a brand new URL. It may be utilized in eventualities similar to profitable type submission, authentication, or after we wish to information a person to a unique part of the applying. It takes within the URL as an argument or the route identify. It returns a standing code 302 by default, however we are able to outline our personal customized standing codes.

To deal with errors, the abort perform is offered by Flask. It’s used to abort the processing of a request and return a HTTP error response. It will permit us to deal with distinctive instances or errors in our software and reply with the suitable HTTP standing code and error web page. Utilizing this perform, we are able to deal with varied errors in Flask, similar to unauthorized entry, invalid requests and different kinds of errors. We are able to select the suitable HTTP standing code for the error, making certain the shopper will get details about what went incorrect.

Right here’s an instance that exhibits use the 2 capabilities:

from flask import Flask, redirect, render_template, request, abort

app = Flask(__name__)

def residence():
 return render_template('residence.html')

@app.route('/login', strategies=['GET', 'POST'])
def login():
 if request.methodology == 'POST':
  username = request.type['username']
  password = request.type['password']

  if username == 'admin' and password == 'password':
           return redirect('/dashboard')

  return render_template('login.html')

def dashboard():
 return render_template('dashboard.html')

def unauthorized_error(error):
 return render_template('unauthorized.html'), 401

if __name__ == '__main__':

On this instance, the /login route handles each GET and POST requests. When a POST request is acquired, it performs authentication with the offered credentials. If the credentials are legitimate, the person is redirected to the /dashboard route utilizing the redirect perform.

Nevertheless, if the authentication fails (similar to when the person gives the incorrect login data), the request is aborted with a 401 Unauthorized standing code utilizing the abort perform. The person is then directed to an error web page specified within the unauthorized_error error handler, which renders the unauthorized.html template and returns a 401 standing code.

By using the redirect and abort capabilities collectively, we are able to successfully deal with authentication failures and redirect customers to applicable pages or show related error messages, making certain a safe and user-friendly login expertise.

Greatest Practices for URL Routing in Flask

It’s vital for our software to observe the most effective practices when creating URLs. Listed below are a few of the most vital to observe:

  • Manage URLs and make them simple to learn. Group the associated routes. It will make it simpler to navigate and handle our codebase.
  • Make use of variables. Utilizing variables in URL patterns will allow our software to deal with dynamic requests from customers. To do that, we are able to make the most of guidelines similar to <variable_name>. We are able to couple variables with converters with the intention to deal with totally different varieties of information in our URLs.
  • Clear error messages. Make sure that, when dealing with errors in routes, we give clear and informative error messages to customers. It will go a good distance in the direction of serving to customers perceive why the errors occurred and to taking the suitable actions.
  • Make the most of the url_for perform. Constructing URLs utilizing the url_for perform ensures that our URLs are mechanically generated and correctly structured and constant all through the applying, eliminating the necessity to exhausting code them.

By following these greatest practices, we are able to create well-organized and maintainable URL routing in our Flask functions. This results in cleaner code, improved readability, higher error dealing with, and extra versatile and structured URLs.


In conclusion, understanding URL routing in Flask is crucial for constructing person pleasant and highly effective internet functions. By defining routes and mapping them to view capabilities, this enables builders to deal with incoming requests and generate applicable responses. When coupled with variables, we’re in a position to construct extra dynamic URL patterns, making the applying extra versatile and adaptable.

Defining the form of HTTP strategies a route accepts allows an software to simply accept various kinds of request relying on the strategy outlined for a route.

Flask additionally gives options for dealing with errors and redirects. The redirect perform allows us to redirect customers to totally different URLs, whereas the abort perform helps in dealing with errors and responding with applicable HTTP standing codes.

Among the greatest practices for URL routing in Flask embody maintaining routes organized and straightforward to learn, utilizing variables for dynamic URL patterns, offering clear messages for widespread errors, and correctly structuring and producing URLs utilizing the url_for perform.

By understanding URL routing ideas in Flask, and following these greatest practices, builders can create environment friendly, versatile and user-friendly internet functions.