On the Internet, pagination is a strategy to break up giant items of content material into extra bite-sized items. On this article, we’ll have a look at a easy strategy to divide content material right into a sequence of “pages” utilizing HTML, CSS and vanilla JavaScript.

Though pagination might be applied utilizing frameworks similar to React and Angular, the intention of this text is to offer a simple, step-by-step information to establishing pagination, in order that we are able to perceive the essential ideas concerned.

Desk of Contents
  1. Creating Our Base Web Page
  2. Implementing the Pagination Functionality with JavaScript
  3. Adapting Our Code to Other Scenarios
  4. Conclusion

Creating Our Base Internet Web page

Earlier than implementing our pagination system, let’s create an HTML construction that shops the content material we need to show. This may be any form of content material, however for this tutorial, we’ll use a desk of 5 columns and 15 rows that shops the names of scholars in several grades. Right here’s a snippet of our HTML:

<article class="content material">
        <th>Grade 1</th>
        <th>Grade 2</th>
        <th>Grade 3</th>
        <th>Grade 4</th>
        <th>Grade 5</th>
        <td>Religion Andrew</td>
        <td>Angela Christopher`</td>
        <td>David Elias</td>
        <td>Samuel Thomas</td>
        <td>Richard Elias</td>

We’ve wrapped the desk in a container aspect (<article class="content material">). Whereas we don’t strictly want a container aspect, it’s useful to have it, particularly if there are different components on our web page. (It offers a helpful context for the pagination buttons that we’ll be including.)

You’ll be able to view our full HTML code, together with some styling, on CodePen.

With our HTML and CSS in place, the following step is to implement pagination. We’ll firstly use JavaScript to divide the desk into completely different “pages” and so as to add button performance for navigating by way of these pages.

Making a operate that divides the desk into pages

Right here’s our code for dividing the desk into separate items:

doc.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', operate () {
  const content material = doc.querySelector('.content material'); 
  const itemsPerPage = 5;
  let currentPage = 0;
  const objects = Array.from(content material.getElementsByTagName('tr')).slice(1);

The primary line creates an occasion listener that ensures that the JavaScript code runs after the HTML content material has been totally loaded and parsed. That is to forestall any manipulation or interplay with components earlier than the content material turns into out there within the DOM.

With doc.querySelector('.content material'), we’re deciding on the <article class="content material"> wrapper and initializing it as a variable.

With const itemsPerPage = 5;, we’re setting the variety of rows to show on every web page.

With let currentPage = 0;, we’re making a variable that retains observe of the present web page quantity. It begins at 0, which represents the primary web page. (The primary index in JavaScript is 0, so it counts from 0 as an alternative of 1.)

The final line makes use of the getElementsByTagName technique to pick all the weather with a <tr> tag throughout the desk. We create an array (objects) of all of the youngster components and used the slice(1) to exclude the primary row (header) and create an array of the remaining rows.

Because of this the heading will stay in place as we change pages.

Figuring out the showPage() performance

Subsequent, let’s work on the code for displaying pages:

operate showPage(web page) {
  const startIndex = web page * itemsPerPage;
  const endIndex = startIndex + itemsPerPage;
  objects.forEach((merchandise, index) => );

We begin by making a showPage() operate that accepts a web page parameter. This operate is accountable for displaying the objects related to that particular web page when it’s referred to as.

Subsequent, we calculate the startIndex, which is the primary merchandise that needs to be displayed on the present web page by multiplying the web page parameter with the itemsPerPage. We additionally calculate the endIndex that comes instantly after the final merchandise that needs to be displayed on the present web page.

By doing this, we’re creating a variety of things to be displayed. For instance, let’s say we have now ten objects and we need to show 5 objects per web page. If we’re on the primary web page (web page = 0), startIndex can be 0, and endIndex can be 0 + 5 = 5. This vary ([0, 5]) consists of the primary 5 objects. On the following web page (web page = 1), startIndex can be 5, and endIndex can be 5 + 5 = 10. This vary ([5, 10]) consists of the remaining objects.

With objects.forEach(), we create a loop that iterates by way of every row and checks if its index falls throughout the vary of things to be displayed on the present web page — that’s, if it’s both earlier than the startIndex or after/equal to the endIndex. If the index is throughout the vary, the toggle key phrase applies the hidden class (which we’ll outline in our CSS code) to the merchandise, successfully hiding it. If the index doesn’t meet both situation, the hidden class is eliminated, making the merchandise seen.

Our hidden class strikes the objects off display, hiding them from view however nonetheless permitting them to be accessible to these utilizing display readers:

.hidden {
  clip: rect(0 0 0 0);
  clip-path: inset(50%);
  top: 1px;
  overflow: hidden;
  place: absolute;
  white-space: nowrap;
  width: 1px;

Including buttons

Let’s now have a look at how one can add our navigation buttons. Within the code under, we’ll create and add the button performance based mostly on the content material of the desk:

operate createPageButtons() {
  const totalPages = Math.ceil(objects.size / itemsPerPage);
  const paginationContainer = doc.createElement('div');
  const paginationDiv = doc.physique.appendChild(paginationContainer);

Firstly, we create a createPageButtons() operate that may retailer the logic to create our buttons. Then we calculate the full pages we’ll must show our desk. We do that by dividing the full variety of objects by the specified variety of objects per web page. The result’s rounded up utilizing the Math.ceil() operate. This ensures that every one the rows of our desk objects are lined by the out there pages.

Subsequent, we create a div to comprise our dynamically generated web page buttons (doc.createElement('div')). Then we appended the <div> aspect to the physique of our HTML construction utilizing doc.physique.appendChild(paginationDiv). (We haven’t really instructed it the place to sit down within the HTML construction sure. We’ll do this shortly.) Lastly, we add a category of pagination to that button container in order that we are able to goal it with types.

The following step is to create buttons for every web page, utilizing a loop to iterate by way of every potential web page index:

for (let i = 0; i < totalPages; i++) {
const pageButton = doc.createElement('button');
pageButton.textContent = i + 1;
pageButton.addEventListener('click on', () => {
  currentPage = i;

The for loop ranges from 0 (which is the primary web page) to the full variety of pages minus 1.

Inside every web page iteration, a brand new particular person web page button is created utilizing the doc.createElement() technique, rising the web page quantity by 1 every time it loops.

Subsequent, we create a click on occasion listener and connect it to the web page buttons. When a button is clicked, the occasion listener’s callback operate will get executed.

Right here’s an evidence of the callback operate:

  • The currentPage variable is up to date to the present worth of i, which corresponds to the index of the clicked web page.
  • The showPage() operate is known as with the up to date currentPage worth, inflicting the content material of the clicked web page to be displayed.

To complete off our button creation code, we finish with this:

content material.appendChild(paginationContainer);

We append our button container to the tip of our .content material wrapper, after which place our buttons contained in the button container.

Highlighting energetic buttons

To make our buttons extra user-friendly, we’ll add a particular fashion to the presently “energetic” button. Let’s create a operate that applies the types of the energetic CSS class to a button as soon as its web page is energetic:

operate updateActiveButtonStates() {
  const pageButtons = doc.querySelectorAll('.pagination button');
  pageButtons.forEach((button, index) => {
    if (index === currentPage) {
    } else {
      button.classList.take away('energetic');

First, we retrieve all of the pagination buttons utilizing the doc.querySelectorAll and assign them to the pageButtons variable.

The updateActiveButtonStates() operate then goes by way of every of those buttons one after the other, utilizing a forEach loop, and compares its index with the worth of the currentPage variable.

Subsequent, we use the conditional if assertion to assign the types of the energetic class if the button’s index matches the present web page.

If the button’s index doesn’t match the present web page, the energetic class is eliminated. This ensures that the opposite buttons don’t retain the energetic class.

To implement this characteristic, we name the updateActiveButtonStates() operate every time a web page is modified or displayed.

Calling on the script

Our pagination script ends with the next two strains:


We name the createPageButtons() operate earlier than the showPage() operate. This ensures that the buttons are created as soon as the web page masses.

Our script now calculates the suitable vary of things to show for every web page, listens for button clicks, and updates the web page show.

The ultimate outcome

The next Pen reveals the ultimate outcome.

Adapting Our Code to Different Situations

The script we’ve created is useful for breaking apart a desk right into a sequence of pages. However what if our content material is one thing apart from a desk? As an alternative of desk content material, let’s attempt our script with another sorts of content material.

As an alternative of a desk aspect, let’s place some <part> components inside our container and see how one can adapt our script. Right here’s our fundamental HTML:

<article class="content material">

We solely must make three quite simple adjustments to our script:

doc.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', operate () {
const content material = doc.querySelector('.content material'); 
const itemsPerPage = 1;
let currentPage = 0;
const objects = Array.from(content material.getElementsByTagName('part')).slice(0);

The adjustments are:

  • set itemsPerPage to 1, in order that just one part seems per web page
  • change the focused tag identify to part, as we’re now looping by way of <part> components moderately than <tr> components
  • set slice() to 0, which limits the choice to the primary part aspect (which has index 0)

The next CodePen demo reveals this in motion.

We will simply adapt the demo above to work with a listing of things. Within the instance under, we alter the wrapping aspect from an <article> to a <ul>, and alter the <part> components to <li> components:

<ul class="content material">

In our JavaScript, we’ll simply make two adjustments:

  • getElementsByTagName('part') turns into getElementsByTagName('li')
  • let’s set const itemsPerPage to 2 to point out two record objects per web page

After some minor CSS adjustments to account for the unordered record, we find yourself with the outcome under.


On this tutorial, we discovered how one can implement pagination utilizing HTML, CSS and JavaScript. For these with out JavaScript enabled (for no matter motive), the complete content material remains to be out there — simply with out pagination. By utilizing semantic <button> components, the web page remains to be keyboard accessible. We’ve additionally hidden our non-active content material by transferring it off display, moderately than utilizing show: none, in order that it’s nonetheless accessible to display readers.

We may go additional by including descriptive ARIA labels and attributes to convey the aim and function of components similar to pagination buttons to display readers.

I hope this demo will get you fascinated about easy pagination performance with no need to achieve for a framework.